Fish Feed and Feeding Technique for Catfish Farming
Tilapia’s Nutrient Requirements
Different species of Tilapia have different growth periods so their requirements for nutrients may differ. For Nile Tilapia fingerlings, the appropriate protein content is approximately 35%-40%. For Tialpia above 50g, it is about 20%-25%. Blue Tilapia fingerlings have a suitable protein content of 36%, and 26%-36% in adult fish. The Tilapia feed should have a minimum of 25% crude protein.
Natural bait making resources are available to meet Tilapia’s Vitamin needs for fish farming in ponds. Tilapia farming has a half-amount of Vitamin A than Carp farming.
Different Types of Fish Feed
1. Bran chaff feed
You could use wheat bran or rice bran as a feed.
2. Oil cake feed
Oil cake can be used as feed for fish farming. It includes soybean meal, rape meal, cotton meal and soya meal. Although these oil cakes are high in protein, they can be harmful to fish growth. Antitrypsin, urease and other chemicals are responsible for the problems. It is better to use soybean meal cooked than raw. It is commonly mixed with bran chaff due to the toxic gossypol found in cotton seed meal. Tilapia reproduction will be affected if there is more than 50% of cotton seed meal in fish feed formulation.
3. Amphibious plant feed
Tilapia fingerlings, as well as adult Tilapia, love amphibious plants like lemna minor and soirodela polyrhiza. Tilapia can also eat aquatic plants such as water lettuce, water-hyacinth, and alligator. Farmers can make feed from them by either cutting them into small pieces or mixing them together into compound feed. Both Tilapia fingerlings as well as adult Tilapia can easily digest Cyanophyceae and Microcystis.
4. Pomace feed, Cereal feed
Pomace feed can also be used as Tilapia food. Cereal feed is made up of malt, rice sprout and other cereal feed.
5. Animal food
Animal feed is primarily used to make compound feed. It is not recommended that you use them as a feed.
These animal feeds, which include fish meal, blood meal and meat, have a higher protein content than oil cakes. They are easy-to-digest and contain lysine, which is what plant feed lacks.
6. Compound feed
In Tilapia farming around the globe, compound feed is a common practice. You can make compound fish feed by adjusting the following factors: Tilapia nutrient needs, feed sources and raw material nutrients. Fish feed can be made in either intensive or pond farming.
Tilapia Compound Feed
The compound feed for Tilapia is generally in two forms: extruded and pelleted.
The conditioning temperature must be maintained between 80 and 95 degrees for pelleted feed. Good gelatinization is possible if there is enough conditioning. The pelleted feed is then characterized by long-term stability in water and a smooth appearance.
Super micro-grinding equipment above 80% 80 mesh is required to create extruded food. To extend the life of your extruder’s service life, you can use a feed production process that causes less wear.
The pellet diameter of pelleted or extruded feed is generally between 1.5 and 5.0mm. Fish feeds can be used at different growth stages and are often called fingerling feed, adult feed, or whatever you want. Although extruded feed costs more than pelleted, its breeding efficiency is superior to pelleted.
Tilapia feeding skills
The first 15 days following the introduction of fingerlings is crucial. Premium feed is recommended to improve fingerling quality. Feeding should be done frequently with little feed once.
You can feed the fingerlings on the second day following putting. Feed has a protein content of around 32%-36%. Feeding fish is as easy as 6% to 8%. Powder feed is the main feed that should be spread around the pond.
The fish growth rate and the size of your fish will determine how large or small you should adjust the pellet size. Avoid adjusting fish feed too quickly. Fish grow slowly and food will be reduced to 250g. Tilapia begin their fastest growth period when they reach 500g. Feed quantity should not exceed 1% to 2% of total fish, and protein content should not exceed 25%. The following feeding method will be used: Feeding twice in one day, and for two periods at 8am-9am and 3pm-4pm respectively
For Tilapia growth analysis, it is necessary to catch 30-50 fish every 15-20 days. This helps to adjust the feeding rate to ensure healthy fish. The rate at which fish eat is also a factor in their feeding habits. Feeding fish should be stopped if they are unable to finish the feed in 30 minutes.
Climate change and fish health are key factors that influence fish feeding. Farmers should reduce their feeding rates immediately and stop feeding until the situation improves. Farmers should reduce or stop feeding fish when the water temperature drops below 15 degrees or above 32 degrees. This contributes to fish digestion and good water quality.
High protein feed can cause fish disease. It is important to limit the amount of feed that you give your fish.
Fish feeding must follow the following rules: fish feeding must be done at a fixed time, place and quality. It should also take into account the four factors of season, weather, water quality, and the feed-eating situation. These rules and considerations allow farmers to make accurate estimates of the fish farming situation.